Animal Equality

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equalityAnimal Equality
 
The new employee presented what appeared to be an outstanding resume, and was willing to work wherever she was needed on the farm.  Philosophy is tedious and challenging, and only the tiniest portion of people ever wades deeply into it. But even a rudimentary understanding of the core animal rights and animal welfare concepts can greatly increase your advocacy abilities. Keep in mind that even people who ridicule rights arguments are typically receptive to welfare arguments. Supporters of animal research debunk many of the claims of animal rights activities as pure myths.In his book Animal Liberation , Peter Singer states that the basic principle of equality does not require equal or identical treatment; it requires equal consideration.  And welfare arguments are highly effective at getting people to reduce their consumption of animal products, while shifting purchases to more ethical producers. And of course, one of the most effective routes to animal protection has nothing to do with philosophy at all, but rather involves showing people the remarkable variety of delicious foods that are available on a vegan diet.Djurens Rätt (Animal Rights Sweden) is the leading animal rights organisation in Scandinavia, with a membership of about 40 000 (to be compared to Sweden`s entire population of 10 million). A grasp of the concepts presented in this essay can aid your animal protection efforts in numerous ways. But a little animal rights philosophy goes a long way, and when it comes to actually winning rights for animals there are diminishing returns to studying this topic. Martha Nussbaum , Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, is a proponent of the capabilities approach to animal rights.It is in the nature of animals to assert themselves in the animal world but this in itself has nothing to do with having rights.  Once you`re acquainted with the core concepts supporting animal rights and welfare, it`s wise to shift your attention to studying the strategies and tactics that have delivered the greatest gains for animals. Just as nature is explained through reference to the laws of physics, so human behavior can be explained by reference to the two primary motives of pleasure and pain; this is the theory of psychological hedonism. Eventually, Taub`s lab lost its federal funding and discontinued animal research.Some years ago, individuals, organisations and associations from all over the world demanded that this should be extended to the other animals with which we share the planet and that December 10 should also be International Animal Rights Day.  This cartoon appeared in Kladderadatsch , a German satirical magazine, on September 3, 1933, showing lab animals giving the Nazi salute to Hermann Göring , after restrictions on animal testing were announced. In sum, Garry suggests that humans have obligations to nonhuman animals; however, animals do not, and ought not to, have uninfringible rights against humans.
 
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By the end of the 1980s, membership in animal advocacy organizations had reached 10 million people in the United States and opposition to the use of animals in laboratory experiments was rapidly growing. By 1990, some 76 medical schools claimed that demonstrations and break-ins by animal rights advocates had cost them more than $4.5 million, according to a report from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Taub planned to kill the monkeys after a year in order to determine whether this forced movement had stimulated nerve growth.As the conflict between animal rights activists and medical and scientific researchers has grown, federal and state regulation of activities involving animal research has also expanded. In addition, the standards were to include requirements for animal care, treatment, and practices in experimental procedures in research facilities. Over 400 animal rights groups had been organized in the United States, claiming a total membership of 10 million.In Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Espy, 29 F.3d 720 (1994), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that the animal rights organizations and other plaintiffs did not have standing to challenge the USDA. Whereas the Animal Welfare Act governs the general treatment of research animals, other federal statutes govern the testing procedures that may be used on animals in the course of scientific and commercial research and in product testing. Pacheco told the institute`s chief research scientist, Edward Taub, that he was fascinated by animal research.In May 1981, Alex Pacheco, cofounder of an animal rights organization called People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), went to work as a volunteer at the Institute for Behavioral Research, a private research center in Silver Spring, Maryland. Several months later, he took his documentation to the local police department, which seized the lab`s monkeys and filed 17 charges of animal cruelty against Taub, under state law.The scientist was convicted on all the charges, but an appellate court decided that a federally-funded researcher was not required to comply with state laws. Many participants in the debate over animal rights view the 1981 seizure of the Silver Spring monkeys as a turning point for the animal rights movement in the United States, heading it in a more combative and less compromising direction. The biomedical research industry has responded vigorously to criticisms of animal research.